1. Physical: Physical losses caused by un-properly sealing/seaming of a bag.
2. Physiological: means respiration, the temperature variation of the product, heating, humidity, and oxygen of bag.
3. Biological: micro-organisms, insects, rodents, etc. attack.
The cereal and pulses having the essential low moisture commodities due to which are less receptive to spoilage and have greater shelf-life. The deterioration chiefly occurs due to moisture absorption during storage commencing to fungal growth at high temperature and humidity.
Before bulk packaging and storage, the whole grains are fumigated to diminish microbial growth and increase