The Biodegradable word origin
The Bio word is taken from Greek bios ‘(course of) human life.’ In modern scientific usage, the sense is extended to mean ‘organic life.’
What is the meaning of Biodegradable plastic?
Biobased materials indicate the substances obtained from living or dead animals or plants. Biobased materials are a large group of loosely related processing (or engineering) materials, mainly derived from substances originally existing in nature, such as in living tissues or organisms. Still, they may also be obtained by synthetic methods.
Biobased materials are less dense than metal, and some petroleum-derived thermal plastics, are ideal components for many structural materials.
Most biobased polymers perform in a fashion similar to that of conventional polymers. Unlike petroleum-derived materials, most biobased materials are biodegradable. This property enables the end-use products of biobased materials to be disposed of upon completing their useful life without causing any environmental concerns.
Read more: Biodegradable plastic – The complete details
So, What is worst in biodegradable plastic? If it is biodegrading itself.
Preferably, we have to comprehend between biodegradable packaging material and biodegradable plastic. Both are different things; plastic processing is added from the substances obtained from living or dead animals or plants.
Wood, Cactus, Sugarcane, Corn, Algea, Bamboo, Hemp, and many more are the origin of Bioplastic. Decode the different plant-based plastic or bioplastic
Sr. No. #1 After Decomposing Properties will remain the same
When we decompose, the Biodegradable’ plastic bags can last for three years inland and ocean without deteriorating their nature.
Plastic bags that challenge biodegradability were still the same and capable of carrying shopping three years following being exposed to natural conditions.
The research tested for the compostable bags, two types of biodegradable bags, and regular LDPE/HDPE bags after long-term exposure to the earth environment. Not a single kind of bag decayed sufficiently in all climates.
The compostable bag seems to have done fine than a biodegradable bag. After three months in the aquatic environment, the compostable bag specimen had wholly decomposed. Still, Scientist says more effort is required to discover what breakdown products are used for the possible environmental consequences.
After three years, the “biodegradable” bags buried in the soil and the sea could carry shopping. And the compostable bag was being in the ground 27 months after being buried, but when examined with buying, it was incapable of holding any weight without splitting.
Sr. No. #2 No data of sustainability
From an environmental point of view, we should analyze the implementation of biodegradable plastics very carefully.
This bio-plastic is very complicated, not in the making but to understand. There is no such exact figure of sustainability in that bioplastic. Another part is that we have an issue in recyclability and collection of plastic, whether standard plastic or bioplastic.
Read the complete: The Environmental Impact of Plastics
Bioplastic recycling will be the trickiest part after collection, we have to degrade it, and we cannot mix it with the virgin material or with another plastic again. As of now, companies are still researching the process of recycling.
Another, Can we segregate the bio-plastic and regular plastic?
A collection guy cannot segregate it just by visual appearances. Also, Can bioplastic degrade anywhere on any soil with less resource?
Sr. No. #3 Graveyard
Worst Part of Bio-plastic, there is more than meets the eye in biodegradation”! An entire army of microorganisms attacks the material to be broken down. The army differs according to the environment (the specific temperature, moisture content, pH, supply of oxygen, etc.) where biodegradation occurs.
People often get “biodegradable” and “compostable” mixed up, but they do not mean the same thing. Microorganisms may break down a biodegradable product, but this does not necessarily imply converting the product into good quality compost.
Assume if the biodegradable plastic decomposes at the home yard, as its name tells us it is biodegradable. The biodegradability relies on many factors, but mainly upon the moisture of the environment and the level of bioactivity. In the desert or frigid environments, plastic tends to dry out quickly.
In a moist forest, dead animals are decomposed mainly through bacterial action within a month. The plastic will soon give off a foul odor and attract insects and work as dead animals because of the extreme consequences of diseases. And that place is just like a graveyard with a bad smell.
Standards for biodegradability plastics
The International Standards Organization (ISO) presents a sequence of tests about biodegradability in different environments (e. g., soil, activated sludge, seawater, marine sediment), which are regularly revised. The organization is endowed by the United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee (UNSCC), acting as an international harmonization attempt.
Test No. 302B: Inherent Biodegradability: Zahn-Wellens/ EVPA Test
Test No. 302C: Inherent Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (II)
The consumer can identify a biodegradable material only if a label is placed on the product. Some standard certified labels are supplied by organizations such as TÜV AUSTRIA, DIN Certco (of TÜV Rheinland), or the European Union. The different agreement marks depend on the environment and kind of plastic:
A product’s application specifies the ideal biodegradation environment. Consequently, Belgium has already presented a law to determine that packaging may not be shown as biodegradable. After all, the idea is not to have packaging spread around on a massive scale like litter because it is “biodegradable.”
TUV AUSTRIA’s specialists sustain the idea of this legislation – applied only in Belgium for the time being – and can establish the correct biodegradation environment for your products, thanks to their verification marks.
The Certification Committee analyzes each application to avoid misleading communication to verify if this product’s certification is acceptable.
What tests are needed to qualify for an OK biodegradable SOIL certificate?
In supplement to a clear and detailed product definition, three tests are required:
- test on biodegradation (chemical break down of the polymer)
- test on ecotoxicity (test if the composted product does not exert any adverse effect on plants)
- test on heavy metals content
The test is based on the following standards:
- ASTM D 6866 – “Standard Test Methods for Determining the Biobased Content of Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous Samples Using Radiocarbon Analysis “
- DIN SPEC 91236 (CEN/TS 16137) – „ Plastics – Determination of biobased carbon content“
- ISO 16620 – „Plastics – Biobased content“
- ASTM D5988-96 – Standard Test Method for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation in Soil of Plastic Materials or Residual Plastic Materials After Composting
- ASTM D6691-17 Standard Test Method for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials in the Marine Environment by a Defined Microbial Consortium or Natural Sea Water Inoculum
- ISO/DIS 5412 – Biodegradable plastic shopping bags for industrial composting
- ISO 17088:2021 – Plastics — Organic recycling — Specifications for compostable plastics
- DIN EN 16785-1 – Biobased products – Biobased content – Part 1: Determination of biobased content using radiocarbon and elemental analysis (German version EN 16785-1: 2015)